The Artefact

The Artefact is a research journal specialising in the archaeology, ethnohistory and anthropology of the Pacific region and is published by the Archaeological and Anthropological Society of Victoria, Inc. The Society as such is not responsible for any opinion or declaration published in this journal, by whomsoever expressed, unless specifically stated to be so by the editor. The new series of The Artefact was first published in 1976.

Admission to membership of the Society is by application and is granted on approval of the Committee. Application forms are available from the Secretary or online by clicking on the SUBSCRIBE button to your left. Members receive The Artefact as part of their annual subscription.

Annual subscriptions are due on January 1.

Back numbers of The Artefact are available, cost on enquiry, from the Treasurer.

This is a refereed journal. Manuscripts of major research papers should be from 3000 to 8000 words. Longer articles will be considered on the basis of merit. Submissions should comprise a hard copy of the original together with an electronic copy on floppy disk or CD-ROM in Microsoft Word document format only. 

The content of the paper should be outlined by three to five keywords that will fit on one line (e.g. �Lithic implements � Patination � Microwear � Western Victoria�) placed above the title in alphabetical order. The author�s name and the title of the article must be clearly indicated. The manuscript must include an abstract of 50 to 100 words, summarising the article. Italicised words should be formatted as such, and each page should be numbered. The authors name and details should be listed at the end of the article; this will be followed by acknowledgements, notes then references as required. 

All images are to be supplied in a TIFF or JPEG format, at a resolution of 600DPI, with printing size up to, but no greater than 6.5inches x 9.5 inches. Photographic images should be black and white, and need to be of high contrast. (NB: colour images will be converted to B&W;) Photographic images of rock art, which were obtained by physical enhancement or other interference, are not acceptable. Where appropriate, the approval of traditional indigenous custodians must be obtained before submission of any paper or illustration, and where copyright applies the author must obtain the necessary consent and acknowledge it. Captions (to be included on electronic documentation) are required for all illustrative material, together with an indication in the text as to where they, and any table and schedules are to be placed. 

Spelling and punctuation in this journal follow the Style manual for authors, editors and printers of Australian government publications and the Macquarie dictionary. The bibliography and references in the text should follow the style indicated in this issue (see bibliographic and referencing notes below).

In addition to major papers, the submission of short research reports (500-1500 words), book reviews (500-1000 words), is also invited. Readers are also encouraged to provide material relevant for short current news items concerning discoveries, claims, hypotheses and publications in world archaeology and anthropology (generally less than 500 words). 

Announcements intended for a specific issue of this journal should to be available at least two months before the month of intended publication (November). Each author or group of authors receive ten free copies of their article, but additional reprints are available at cost. 

All correspondence should be addressed to: 

The Editor 
The Artefact 
The Archaeological and Anthropological Society of Victoria, Inc. 
PO Box 203 
Carlton South Victoria 3053 


1. Format for papers or articles from journals or magazines 

Smith, M.A. 1986. The antiquity of seed grinding in arid Australia. Archaeology in Oceania 21:29-39. 

Titles of articles in sentence case (only first letter of first word capitalised); journal title in title case (first letter of every word capitalized) and italicised. 

Note: volume is not spelled out or abbreviated as vol., the volume number simply follows the journal title. There should be no spaces between volume number, colon and page numbers. 

2. Format for books, monographs or conference proceedings 

Meehan, B. 1982. Shell Bed to Shell Midden. Australian Institute of Aboriginal Studies, Canberra. 

Williams, E. 1988. Complex Hunter-Gatherers: A Late Holocene Example from Temperate Australia. British Archaeological Reports, International Series 423, Oxford. 

Titles of books or monographs in title case (first letter of every word capitalised) and italicised. Any stand-alone volume is a book or monograph and the title should be italicised, not the series. 

3. Format for unpublished material 

Richards, T. and J. Jordan. 1996. Archaeological Investigations at Cape Bridgewater, Victoria: Management Recommendations and Preliminary Excavation Report. Unpublished report on file, Aboriginal Affairs Victoria, Melbourne. 

Carter, R. 2003. Indigenous Community Archaeology: Present and Future. Paper presented at �Archaeology in the Indigenous Community�, Australian Archaeological Association Annual Conference, December 2003, Jindabyne, NSW. 

Mawer, R. 2002. The History of Pinfire: the Lefaucheux Revolver. Retrieved 13 October 2002, from

Titles of any unpublished material (theses, reports, conference papers, material on the internet, notes, manuscripts, etc.) should be in title case (first letter of every word capitalized). No italics to be used in reference. 

Note: theses, reports or other material should be described as �unpublished� in the reference. Conference papers do not need this. 

4. Format for contributions from edited books, monographs or conference proceedings 

Smith, M.A. 1988. Central Australian seed grinding implements and Pleistocene grindstones. In B. Meehan and R. Jones (eds), Archaeology with Ethnography, pp. 94-108. Australian National University, Canberra. 

Titles of articles, chapters, editorials, etc, from edited books, should be in sentence case (only first letter of first word capitalised). 

Note: page numbers follow title of book. Name of publisher is followed by location. 

Back copies of The Artefact

Back copies of the Artefact are available for purchase. Some volumes are not now available and others, where there are only a few copies left, can only be obtained as part of a set.

Costs in Australian dollars are as follows:
Individual volumes $10 per volume plus postage
Set of all available issues $200 plus postage

Artefact issues available when individual issues are purchased:
Volumes 10 to 22

Artefact issues available when purchased as a set:
Volumes 10 to 22
Volume 9 (very limited number available)
Volume 8 (No 3 – 4)
Volume 7 (No 3 – 4)
Volume 6 (No 1 – 2 & No 3 – 4)
Volume 5 (No 1 – 2)
Volume 4 (No 1 – 2)
Volume 2 (No 2)


Volume 22 1999

  • D M Welch Fossilised human footprints on the coast of north western Australia
  • M J Rowland Holocene environmental variability; have its impacts been underestimated in Australian pre-history?
  • Robert G Bednarik The speleothem medium of finger fluting and its isotopic geochemistry.
  • N Wolski & T H Loy On the invisibility of contact residue analyses on Aboriginal glass artifacts from Western Australia.

Volume 21 1998 Alexander Gallus Memorial Issue

  • J Mulvaney Dr Gallus & Australian Archaeology
  • G Presland A S Gallus and the Archaeological society of Victoria
  • P Veth, P Hiscock, S O�Connor & M Spriggs Gallus on the crossroads; diffusionist models for Asian artefact `traditions� in Australia and the last hurrah for cultural evolutionism.
  • M Munro The stone artefact assemblage from Keilor
  • J Tunn Pleistocene landscapes of Brimbank Park, Keilor, Victoria.
  • C F M Bird & D Frankel Pleistocene & Earl Holocene archaeology in Victoria. A view from Gariwerd.
  • I J McNiven Aboriginal settlement of the saline lake and volcanic landscapes of Corangamite Basin, western Victoria.
  • K Sharpe, M Lacombe & H Fawbery An externalism in order to communicate.
  • H Lourandos & B David Comparing long term archaeological and environmental trends; north Queensland, arid and semi-arid Australia.

Volume 20 1997

  • P B Clarkson Geoglyphs in the Americas.
  • R G Bednarik The origins of navigation and language
  • B David, H Walt, H Lourandos, M Rowe, J Brayer & C Tuniz Ordering the rock paintings of the Mitchell-Palmer limestone zone (Australia) for AMS dating

Book Review


Volume 19 1996

  • M C S Godfrey et al From time to time: Radiocarbon information on archaeological sites held by Aboriginal Affairs Victoria.
  • C J Davey The origins of Victorian mining technology, 1851-1900
  • R G Bednarik The cupules on Chief�s Rock, Auditorium Cave, Bhimbetka.
  • D Welch Simple human figures in Kimberley rock art, Western Australia

Volume 18 1995

  • Tang Hui-Sheng & J M Hare Lithic industries of the Quinghai-Tibetan Plateau
  • C F M Bird Mount Talbot 1: a rock shelter in southern Wimmera, Victoria.
  • C Clarkson & B David The antiquity of blades & points revisited
  • D Frankel & P C Edwards Archaeology asunder Downunder
  • N Stern The �blue tuff� locality at Koobi Fora in northern Kenya
  • P C Edwards The formation of large sites and their interpretation.
  • J M Webb Abandonment processes and curate/discard strategies, Cyprus
  • A B Knapf & I Johnson The Sydney Cyprus Survey Project
  • J Powell Fishy business; studies of fishing in the prehistoric Aegean

Book review

  • J Flood Archaeology of the Dreamtime: the story of prehistoric Australia and its people.
  • P Bahn (ed) Collins Dictionary of Archaeology
  • Antonio Sagona (ed) Bruising the red earth: ochre mining and ritual in Aboriginal Tasmania Miscellanea

Volume 17 1994

  • J Flood & B David Traditional systems of encoding meaning in Wardaman rock art, Northern territory, Australia
  • A J Ardito Reducing the effects of heavy equipment compaction A. K. O�Gower Not just another diversity index
  • R G Bednarik Malangine & Koolangine Caves, South Australia
  • R G Bednarik & J F Evans The fifth Australian Archaeometry conference

Book Review

  • P Hiscock & S Mitchell Stone artefact quarries & reduction sites in Australia: towards a type profile
  • T P Hutchinson Version 2 (history & archaeology) of essentials of statistical methods


Volume 16 1993 Selected papers of the first AASV Symposium on Archaeological Dating

  • C Chippindale Dating & Australian Archaeology
  • V Morgan Ice core dating and climatic records A. Peter Kershaw Palynology, biostratigraphy & human impact.
  • C V Murray Wallace A review of the application of the amino acid racemisation reaction to archaeological dating.
  • D Dragovich Varnish cation ratios and relative rock art dating
  • R G Bednarik The calibrated dating of petroglyphs
  • A Watchman The use of laser technology in rock art dating.
  • T H Loy On the dating of prehistoric organic residues.

Abstracts of papers presented but not included in this volume

Book review

  • Alberto Rex Gonzalez Las placas metalicas de los Andes del sur

Volume 15 1992

  • P Faulstich Massaging the earth: Pleistocene finger flutings and the archaeology of experience.
  • R G Bednarik Early subterranean chert mining
  • B David, R Bird, R Fullager & L Little Glassy obsidian artifacts from north Queensland
  • B Downey & D Frankel Radiocarbon and thermoluminescent dating of a central Murray mound.


Volume 14 1991

  • B M J Huchet The nature of analogies in Australian archaeology
  • C Smith Context, contact &site; formation processes
  • B David & J Stanisic Land snails in Australian archaeology
  • R G Bednarik & Li Fushun Rock art dating in China


Volume 13 1989-90

  • M G Plew Use wear analysis of stone knives from the Western Desert, Australia
  • S Jamieson Experiments in the manufacture of ancient Near Eastern pottery
  • F Weaver Goanna Bay excavation, Top Lake, Mallacoota Inlet, north-eastern Victoria

Volume 12 1987-1988

  • R G Bednarik The cave art of Western Australia
  • M P Pickering Food for thought: an alternative to Cannibalism in the Neolithic


  • J D Richards & N S Ryan Data processing in Archaeology
  • A Whittle The prehistory of Neolithic Europe

Volume 11 December 1986

  • W Beck & A McConnell The practice of archaeology in Victoria :a proposal for guidelines
  • G Presland One hundred and fifty years of Aboriginal studies in Victoria


  • P J F Coutts Coastal archaeology in south eastern Victoria
  • J D Light & H Unglik A Frontier for trade blacksmith shop 1796-1812

Volume 10 July 1985

  • B Gott Plants mentioned in Dawson�s Australian Aborigines
  • P Sillitoe Decorating to communicate


  • P Philps The prehistory of Europe

Volume 9 December 1984

  • Obituary William Culican
  • K Kefous Late Pleistocene megafauna at Lake Victoria, Central Murray, evidence and implications of some recent fossil finds
  • D Frankel & R Vanderwal A note on prehistoric research in the Gulf Province, Papua New Guinea
  • D Gaughwin Women in the food quest in Western Victoria
  • A Rainey A quartzite assemblage from the Tully District, Queensland

Volume 8(3-4) June 1984

  • H Campbell & M Prokopec Antiquity of tooth avulsion in Australia
  • P Sillitoe Salt users of the Papua New Guinea Highlands
  • J Stockton Archaeology and maps in Tasmania: A review
  • R Bednarik On the nature of psychograms.
  • G D Aslin & R G Bednarik Karake Cave – A preliminary report

Volume 8 (1-2) June 1983

  • J V S Megaw Sandor Gallus-Archaeologist in two hemispheres
  • A Gallus Excavations at Keilor, Victoria Report No 3
  • D Gillieson Geoarchaeological applications of Scanning Electron Microscopy ; some Australian examples
  • M C S Godfrey Historical sources as aids to archaeological interpretation � examples from Discovery Bay, Victoria

Book Reviews

  • B Meehan Shell Bed to Shell Midden

Volume 7 (3-4) December 1982

  • M Stephen The dynamism of tradition
  • P Sillitoe The lithic technology of a Papua New Guinea Highland people
  • N Barnard A Yi-ewer of Middle Chou style in the collection of the National Gallery of Victoria

Book Reviews

  • P Coutts Readings in Victorian prehistory, Vol 1 Archaeological theory & practice
  • W Bray & D Trump The Penguin Dictionary of Archaeology

Volume 7 (1-2) not available

Volume 6 (3&4) December 1982

  • N M Wallace The anthropologist�s role in Land Right�s claim
  • R G Kimber Some thoughts on stone arrangements

Book Reviews

  • D Johansonm & A M Edey Lucy The beginnings of humankind
  • R Leakey & R Lewin People of the lake. Man, his origins, nature & future

Volume 6 (1&2) July 1981

  • E D Stockton Reflections around the campfire
  • P G Ladd The relevance of palynolgy to archaeology in Australia
  • K Kefous Identification & analysis of lacustrine and riverside fauna from inland sites in southeastern Australia
  • D R Horton Early thought on early man in Australia
  • N Walters Why the Tasmanians stopped eating fish
  • I M Stuart Ethnohistory in the Otway Ranges
  • E D Stockton Recent dates for large tool assemblages on the central coast NSW
  • F S Colliver The Giligulgul � an aboriginal tool?

Book Review

  • J Battersby Cultural policy in Australia

Volume 5 (3 & 4) December 1980

  • N M Wallace Western Desert rock and stone arrangements
  • D Tugby & E Tugby The Reverend John Matthew and Painted Rock: perception and cognition in the recording and reproduction of an Aboriginal rock painting in the Grampians, Victoria
  • L Healey & J Stockton Problems and potentials of archaeological evidence for prehistoric biophysical description in the Derwent Estuary
  • W C Ferguson Fossiliferous chert in Southwestern Australia after the Holocene transgression: a behavioural hypothesis

Book Reviews

  • A Sherratt The Cambridge Encyclopedia of Archaeology
  • M F Christie Aborigines in Colonial Victoria 1835-86
  • J Clegg Notes towards Mathesis Art
  • G Barrett Bellinghausen: a visit to New Zealand, 1820
  • P Stanbury 10,000 years of Sydney Life: a guide to archaeological discovery

Volume 5 (1 & 2) July 1980

  • J Kaminga A functional investigation of Australian microliths
  • G Presland Continuity in Indonesian lithic tradition
  • R G Bednarik The potential of rock patination analysis in Australian archaeology-Part 2
  • R G Kimber Desecration of Aboriginal sites and sacred objects in central Australia
  • M Pickering A technique of bone tool manufacture: from photographs in the Donald P Thomson Collection, National Museum of Victoria.

Book Review

  • J S Watson, V Drew & J D Cole Prehistory of the Eastern Highlands of New Guinea
  • D Frankel Archaeologists at work: studies on Halaf pottery.

Volume 4 (3 & 4) not available

Volume 4 (1 & 2) June 1979

  • H Allen Left out in the cold: why the Tasmanians stopped eating fish.
  • D Horton The great megafaunal extinction debate: 1879-1979
  • C Hunt Fijian pottery and the manufacture of cooking pots on Kadiavu Island.
  • C Hunt A flaked stone industry from Fiji
  • A Ritchie The Talgai Skull Story and the use – or misuse – of archives.
  • M E Simmons & S Simmons Silcrete: a classification for flaked stone artefact assemblages.
  • I M Sutayasa Prehistory in West Java, Indonesia

Book Reviews

  • I Bernal The Olmec World K-c Chang Early Chinese civilization
  • J Winslow The Melanesian environment

Volume 3 No 4 December 1978

  • Talgai Cranium Number E. D. Gill Age and origin of the Talgai Cranium from the Darling Downs of Queensland, Australia
  • Langham Talgai and Piltdown – the common context.

Volume 3 No 3 September 1978

  • Megafauna Issue No 2
  • J Balme An apparent association of artifacts and extinct fauna at Devil�s Lair, Western Australia
  • M L McIntyre & J H Hope Procoptodon fossils from the Willandra Lakes, Western New South Wales.
  • J H J Leach Discovery of an artefact associated with megafauna at Lake Ondit in Western Victoria
  • A Goede, P Murray & R Harmon Pleistocene man and megafauna in Tasmania: dated evidence from cave sites.
  • J Mulvaney William Dampier, ethnography and elf-stones

Book Review

  • D Lewis From Maui to Cook: the discovery and settlement of the Pacific

Volume 3 No 2 June 1978

  • D C Witter Late Pleistocene extinctions: a global perspective
  • E D Gill Palaeoecological changes in Victoria and Bass Strait as a backdrop for the marsupial, megafauna and Aboriginal colonisation
  • P F Murray Australian megamammals: restorations of some Late Pleistocene fossil marsupial and a monotreme
  • K Errey & T Flannery The neglected megafaunal sites of the Colongulac region, Western Victoria

Book review

  • J Mitchell A little history of Astro-archaeology – stages in the transformation of a heresy

Volume 3 No 1 March 1978

  • J Carter S R Mitchell and the study of archaeology in Victoria
  • W Orchiston et al Problems in artefact identification: an �edge ground axe� from the Dry Creek archaeological site near Keilor

Book Reviews

  • R L Kirk & A G Thorne The origins of the Australians
  • K R Howe The Loyalty Islands: a history of culture contacts 1840-1900


  • J Stevens et al An Egyptian mummy of the First Intermediate Period in the Museum of Victoria

Volume 2 No 4 December 1977

  • J Clegg A Sausserian model of prehistoric art
  • R L Vanderwal The Shag Bay rockshelter, Tasmania
  • D Wayne Orchiston Petrological studies in South Island, New Zealand prehistory 2. Maori use of white limestone
  • G Presland Aboriginal local groups and seasonal exploitation in southwestern Victoria
  • E D Stockton Pre-microlithic industries in south-east Australia

Book Reviews

  • B Wood The evolution of Early Man
  • R S Miller Misi Gete: John Geddie, pioneer missionary to the New Hebrides

Volume 2 No 3 September 1977

  • D W Orchiston, R N Miller & R C Glenie A history of nineteenth century investigations at the Lancefield megafaunal site
  • M Orbell The Maori tradition of Kupe: a religious interpretation
  • F P Dickson Identification of buried middens by soil samples

Book Reviews

  • D & R Whitehouse Archaeological Atlas of the world

Volume 2 No 2 June 1977

  • I McBryde Ethnographic collections of Governor LaTrobe now in the hands of the Muse� d�Ethnographie de Neuchatel, Switzerland
  • W Davis & F E Treloar The application of racemisation dating in archaeology: a critical review

Volume 2 No 1 March 1977

  • E D Gill Constraints imposed by the Earth Sciences on the interpretation of the Warrnambool �Mahogany Ship� wreck site
  • L West Aboriginal Man at Kow Swamp, northern Victoria: the problem of locating the burial site of the KSI skeleton

Book Reviews

  • J Mellaart The Neolithic of the Near East
  • S Purushottam Neolithic cultures of western Asia

Volume 1 No 2 June 1976

  • E E Joyce & J R Anderson Late quaternary geology and environment at the Dry Creek archaeological sites near Keilor in Victoria, Australia
  • A Gallus The Middle and early Upper Pleistocene stone industries at the Dry Creek archaeological sites near Keilor, Australia

Volume 1 No 1 March 1976

  • L C Horrocks A study in intercultural conflicts: the Du Fresne Massacre at the Bay of Islands, New Zealand 1772
  • E D Gill The Aborigines and coastal processes in Western Victoria, Australia